Discussion 2: Arthritis
While arthritis impacts nearly 50 million adults in the United States, it is not a disease that is limited to adulthood. Consider the case of Ashley Russell. At the age of 14 months, Ashley was diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. As a baby, her parents noticed that her knee was always swollen and that she often wanted to be carried instead of walking on her own (Cyr, 2012). After seeking medical care, Ashley’s underlying disorder was discovered. Arthritis in children is not uncommon. According to the CDC (2011), an estimated 294,000 children under age 18 have some form of arthritis or rheumatic condition. Due to the prevalence of the disorder in both children and adults, you must understand the pathophysiology and symptoms of arthritis in order to properly diagnose and prescribe treatment.
· Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 24 in the McPhee and Hammer text. Identify the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Consider the similarities and differences of the disorders.
· Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorders, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the disorders.
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1. description of the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, including the similarities and differences between the disorders.
2. Then explain how the (gender and ethnicity) factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorders, as well as the diagnosis of treatment for the disorders.
· Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
o Chapter 5, “Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing”
This chapter examines how the body responds to injury and infection by exploring the first, second, and third lines of defense. It also covers wound healing and alterations of the wound healing process.
o Chapter 6, “Adaptive Immunity”
This chapter examines the third line of defense, adaptive immunity. It also covers the roles of antigens and immunogens, the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immunity, and the production of B and T lymphocytes in the immune response.
o Chapter 7, “Infection and Defects in Mechanism of Defense”
This chapter covers the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of disorders resulting from infection, deficiencies in immunity, and hypersensitivity. It also examines the pathophysiology of an important immune disorder—HIV/AIDS.
o Chapter 8, “Stress and Disease”
This chapter evaluates the impact of stress on various body systems and the immune system. It also examines coping mechanisms and disorders related to stress.
o Chapter 9, “Biology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment of Cancer”
This chapter explores the developmental process of cancer and factors that impact the onset of cancer at the cellular level. It also describes various treatment options.
o Chapter 10, “Cancer Epidemiology”
This chapter reviews genetic, environmental, behavioral, and diet-related risk factors for cancer. It also examines types of cancers that result from risk factors.
o Chapter 11, “Cancer in Children”
This chapter focuses on the presentation and prognosis of childhood cancers. It examines the impact of genetic and environmental factors on these cancers.
o Chapter 36, “Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System”
This chapter covers the structure and function of bones, joints, and skeletal muscle. It also explores effects of aging on the musculoskeletal system.
o Chapter 37, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function”
This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of bone, joints, and skeletal muscle disorders. Additionally, it explores musculoskeletal tumors, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
o Chapter 38, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children”
This chapter includes musculoskeletal disorders that affect children, such as congenital defects, bone infection, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, muscular dystrophy, musculoskeletal tumors, and nonaccidental trauma.
o Chapter 39, “Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument”
This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of skin. It then covers effects of aging on skin, as well as disorders of the skin, hair, and nails.
o Chapter 40, “Alterations of Integument in Children”
This chapter covers alterations of the integument that affect children. These include acne vulgaris, dermatitis, infections of the skin, insect bites and parasites, vascular disorders, and other skin disorders.
· McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
o Chapter 3, “Disorders of the Immune System”
This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the immune system. It also explores the pathophysiology of various immune disorders such as primary immunodeficiency diseases and AIDS.
o Chapter 8, “Diseases of the Skin”
This chapter begins with an overview of the anatomy and physiology of skin. It also explores the pathophysiology of various types of skin lesions and inflammatory skin diseases.
o Chapter 24, “Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease”
This chapter explores the pathogenesis of inflammation and its role in rheumatic diseases. It also examines the clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of rheumatic diseases such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis.
· Zimbron, J. (2008). Mind maps—Dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.medmaps.co.uk/beta/
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. [Image]. Used with permission of MedMaps.
This media provides examples of mind maps for dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
· Arthritis Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/
· Lupus Foundation of America. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lupus.org/newsite/index.html
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